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Phthalates are also found in modern electronics and medical applications such as catheters and blood transfusion devices.The most widely used phthalates are di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), and diisononyl phthalate (DINP).Diet is believed to be the main source of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and other phthalates in the general population.Phthalates are used in a large variety of products, from enteric coatings of pharmaceutical pills and nutritional supplements to viscosity control agents, gelling agents, film formers, stabilizers, dispersants, lubricants, binders, emulsifying agents, and suspending agents.
The polar carboxyl group contributes little to the physical properties of the phthalates, except when R and R' are very small (such as ethyl or methyl groups).
All of these mentioned phthalates are now regulated and restricted in many products.
DEHP, although most applications are shown to pose no risk when studied using recognized methods of risk assessment, has been classified as a Category 1B reprotoxin, and is now on the Annex XIV of the European Union's REACH legislation.
DEHP was the dominant plasticizer used globally in PVC due to its low cost.
Benzylbutylphthalate (BBP) is used in the manufacture of foamed PVC, which is used mostly as a flooring material, though its use is decreasing rapidly in the Western countries.
), or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid and are mainly used as plasticizers (substances added to plastics to increase their flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity).